Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Dentistry




College of Dental Medicine


Introduction: This study investigated an ideal anteroposterior position of maxillary incisors viewed from a facial profile perspective in Caucasian females. Methods: Smiling profile photographs were collected from pre-treatment records of 40 Caucasian female patients within the Department of Orthodontics at the Medical University of South Carolina. The 40 patient photographs were randomly compiled in a REDCAP survey. The survey was distributed to 82 orthodontists and 31 laypersons who were asked to determine whether the maxillary incisor in the photographs were too far forward, too far back or just about right within the face. An optimal group (Group O) was established from the photographs of patients whose incisors were rated as “just about right” by 75% of the raters. The same method was applied to find a “too far back” group (Group B) and “too far forward” group (Group F). A mean incisor to glabella vertical distance and the standard deviation was determined for both groups. Results: Within the optimal group, the average incisor to GV measurement rated by all judges as “just about right” was -1.17 mm. Within Group F, the average incisor to GV measurement rated by all judges was 2.67 mm. Within Group B, the average incisor to GV measurement rated by all judges was -2.75 mm. There was a statistically significant difference between the overall way orthodontists and laypeople rated the upper incisor position (p-value<0.0001). There was no correlation between forehead inclination and incisor position relative to GV within the optimal group (p-value = 0.2658, Spearman correlation = 0.34). Conclusions: The optimal AP position of maxillary incisors in Caucasian females is -1 mm to 0 mm relative to Glabella Vertical. Glabella Vertical may be a useful landmark to determine the optimal position of maxillary incisors in Caucasian females.


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